From the Xvii the Century Conomy, Economic Wealth marketing SEO in Houston
The economy (from ancient Greek οἰκονομία oikonomía “administration of a home”) is a discipline that studies the economy as a human activity that consists in the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services.
, becomes an element increasingly important to the lives of states and individuals. So we will consider that we can no longer stick to the family economy, but that it is appropriate to focus on the vast field that extends beyond what will be called in the first time political economy. marketing SEO in Houston However the term political economy posing problems due to the relations it induces between the political and the economic, the profession following Alfred Marshall 1 , 2 prefers to opt for the English word economics. The French economic translation will not succeed and France as the Latin countries will long designate the economic discipline, economics to insist on the scientific character. This term, because of its very insistence, gives rise to many controversies.
If economics (discipline) is the concept studied by economics , tether economy of antiquity to the end of the xviii the century
The economy of antiquity
Economic thought goes back to Mesopotamian, Greek, Roman, Indian, Chinese (see Qin Shi Huang), and Persian and Arabic civilizations.
From the end of the VI Th millennium BC. AD the city-states of Sumer developed their businesses and economies from the markets of raw materials. The first Sumer law codes could be considered as the first economic writings, many of which attributes are still used in the valuation of today’s prices such as these latter based on economic theories , and on management , its spectrum is broader and extends from economic philosophy to reflections and studies on economic policies . microeconomics or the study of individual behavior, and macroeconomics that emerges in the interwar -gores, with the major work of John Maynard Keynes, entitled The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money 3 , 4 , 5 .During the second half of the xx th century, marketing SEO in Houston the corpus was extended to the analysis and management of many human organizations (public authorities, private companies, cooperatives, etc. ) and certain areas: international finance, development countries, environment, labor market, culture, agriculture, etc
AD the city-states of Sumer developed their businesses and economies from the markets of raw materials. The first Sumer law codes could be considered as the first economic writings, many of which attributes are still used in the valuation of today’s prices such as the codified amounts of money exchange during trade ( rate of interest ), fines, inheritance rules, laws concerning the manner in which private property is to be taxed or divided, etc. 6. The Babylonians and the neighboring city-states developed the first economic system using a metric of various products, such as the “shekel ” measure based on the weight of barley, which was secured by a legal code 7 .
In Mesopotamia, many tablets found especially in Kanosh, Anatolia, or Assure demonstrate an intense commercial activity
Economical is a Greek word that appears as the title of two treatises, one of Xenophon, the other of Aristotle , whose object is the knowledge and formulation of laws (“names”) to optimize the use property of a house (“oaks”), considered as a collective unit of production of an extended family or a clan. Wealth is considered from the point of view of the abundance of commodities produced and their utility, not of the accumulation of money by usury or trading, the processes of which are the subject of another discipline which Aristotle calls chrematistic (of karma (wealth) and – altos(superlative degree)) and that it considers sterile, even dishonorable activities in the Nicomachean Ethics ). The Economy is explicitly distinguished from the policy , which is the subject of another treaty of Aristotle and seeks to establish harmony and justice between the different classes of people and families who make up the city..
The economic thinkers of the Middle Ages are primarily theologians. Notable writers of the Middle Ages include Thomas Aquinas and Ibn Kaduna . In his Theological Summa, Thomas Aquinas examines many questions of an economic nature, including the justification of private property , commerce, and profit marketing SEO in Houston
Joseph Schumpeter initially considered the scholastics of the late xiv th to the xvii the century as the closest founders of economic science . Reasoning in the natural right they foreshadow the modern economy in the field of monetary policy , the interest , and the theory of value in the context of natural law 10 . After discovering the Muqaddima, Schumpeter lives in Ibn Kaduna the closest precursor of the modern economy 11Even though most of his economic theories were not known in Europe until